Conclusion

Grace Wick Notes has had plenty of questions about the black / white / Asian achievement gap in Oregon in our first year of publication. But not many answers. Perhaps some of the references we have found will be useful. We turn the matter over to our readers, both the general public and policy makers. Research the issue for yourself. We used the same public evidence that others use, but don’t take our word for it. Don’t take anybody else’s word for it. Verify the facts for yourself.

A few final words about the black / white / Asian achievement gap in Oregon. The anonymous staff of Grace Wick Notes is not about to tell anyone to do or say anything in public one way or another. But we do note what many of you already know: these things that cannot be talked about in public are being talked about in private. Friends talk with friends, family talks with family, co-workers talk with co-workers, policy makers talk with policy makers. Keep talking.

There’s not going to be an overnight agreement among all people about the the black / white / Asian achievement gap in Oregon. We are asked to have a conversation about race. That conversation does not always need to end with “… and that happens because white people are racists.”

I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character.
– Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Grace Wick Notes will return to regular publication at a future date.

Redlining

The state of Oregon did forbid free black people from being in the state in its 1867 state constitution. In the same sentence, Oregon also forbade Chinese people and Kanaka (Polynesians, Hawaiians, and some Canadian Native Americans). In the history of Oregon, thousands of Asians were expelled from the state during World War Two. One (1) black person, Jacob Vanderpool, was expelled due to his race in 1858, and none before or since.

In 1919, the Portland Realty Board revised its Code of Ethics. The new Code of Ethics forbade members from selling houses outside of a defined area to black would-be home owners. The new Code of Ethics also forbade members from selling houses outside of a defined area to Asian would-be home owners. This practice was called redlining, after a red line drawn on a map showing the defined area where blacks and Asians were allowed to buy houses. The prohibition was abolished in 1952.

Between 1919 and 1952, both black families and Asian families were limited in their choices on where to buy a house in Portland. How does redlining explain the black / white / Asian achievement gap in Oregon?

NOTES

Fair Housing Council of Oregon Anywhere but Here
http://www.fhco.org/pdfs/anywherebutpanels.pdf

Sue Bishop Negro Housing in Portland
https://scholarsbank.uoregon.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1794/6862/Sue_Bishop_ocr.pdf?sequence=1

Native Americans 2

The Burns Paiute Tribe own the Burns Paiute Indian Colony, measuring 13,738 acres in Harney County. They operate the Old Camp Casino.

The Confederated Tribes of the Coos, Lower Umpqua and Siuslaw Indians own the Coos, Lower Umpqua and Siuslaw Reservation, measuring less than 10 acres in Coos Bay. They operate the Three Rivers Casino.

The Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community of Oregon own the Grand Ronde Community, measuring 11,040 acres in Yamhill County and Polk County. They operate Spirit Mountain Casino.

The Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians own the Siletz Reservation, measuring 4,204 acres in Lincoln County. They operate Chinook Winds Casino.

The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation own the Umatilla Reservation, measuring 172,882 acres in Umatilla County and Union County. They operate Wildhorse Resort & Casino.

The Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs own the Warm Springs Reservation, measuring 641,118 acres in Wasco, Jefferson, Clackamas, Marion, and Linn Counties. They are building the Columbia Gorge Casino and own Indian Head Casino.

The Coquille Indian Tribe has land held in trust called the Coquille Reservation, measuring 5,400 acres in Coos Bay. They operate the Mill Casino and Hotel.

The Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians plan to have a reservation but do not yet. They operate Seven Feathers Hotel & Casino Resort.

The Klamath Tribes plan to have a reservation but do not yet. They operate Kla-Mo-Ya Casino.

Celilo Village is not a reservation but is used by Umatilla, Tenino and Yakama, and Columbia River tribes. Fort McDermitt Indian Reservation is a reservation of For MCDermitt Paiute and Shoshone tribes on the Nevada / Oregon border.

The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 required a blood quantum of one half for federal recognition. A person had to be one-half Native American ‘by blood’ to be recognized as a Native American by the United States government. Since that time many tribes have established their own blood quantum limits. No other ethnic group has their blood quantum measured in determining their government benefits. No other ethnic group is allowed to own casinos in states that otherwise ban casinos. Are the United States government and the tribal governments practicing discrimination?

NOTES

Wikipedia List of Indian Reservations in Oregon
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Indian_reservations_in_Oregon

Confederated Tribes of the Coos, Lower Umpqua and Siuslaw Indians
http://ctclusi.org/about-us

Wikipedia Burns Paiute Tribe
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burns_Paiute_Indian_Colony

Wikipedia The Indian Reorganization Act
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Reorganization_Act

Rose City AntiFa

“Rose City Antifa [RCA] was founded in Portland, Oregon in October, 2007 to confront fascist organizing taking place in our home town. Our organization formed following the successful efforts of the Ad-Hoc Coalition Against Racism and Fascism to shut down Hammerfest, a neo-Nazi skinhead festival that drew over one hundred boneheads to the Portland area in early October, 2007. We seek to continue the work of the Ad-Hoc Coalition, as well as countless anti-racist community organizers, anti-racist skinheads, and other individuals who have worked to oppose racial prejudice and bigotry in our communities.” “ARA intends to do the hard work necessary to build a broad, strong movement against racism, sexism, anti-Semitism, Islamophobia, homophobia, transphobia, discrimination against the disabled, the oldest, the youngest and the most oppressed people. We want a classless, free society. WE INTEND TO WIN!”

RCA opposes fascist organizing through direct action. “We go where they go. Whenever fascists are organizing or active in public, we’re there. We don’t believe in ignoring them or staying away from them.”

Grace Wick Notes has been unable to find a statement by Rose City Antifa regarding the Israelite Church of God in Jesus Christ. This local group asks and answers the following questions in its literature:

Does the Lord love everybody? No!

Does the Bible teach unity of races? No!

Does [Jesus Christ’s skin] color matter? Yes!

Will the Lord forgive the so-called white race (Edom), Africans, Arabs & other nations for the slave trade of the Jews (Isrealites)? No!

Will the 12 Tribes of Israel get revenge upon their enemies according to the Bible? Yes!

The Southern Poverty Law Center described the Israelite Church of God in Jesus Christ as supremacist and said: “Although most Hebrew Israelites are neither explicitly racist nor anti-Semitic and do not advocate violence, there is a rising extremist sector within the Hebrew Israelite movement whose adherents believe that Jews are devilish impostors and who openly condemn whites as evil personified, deserving only death or slavery.” Regarding the Holocaust, the Southern Poverty Law Center quotes a Hebrew Israelite saying: “It’s a joke! The Holocaust is a damn joke! Heil Hitler!”

The Israelite Church of God in Jesus Christ is located at 309 N.E. Wygant Street in Portland, Oregon. They meet six times a week. Will Rose City Antifa go where they go?

NOTES

Rose City Antifascists
http://rosecityantifa.weebly.com/

Israelite Church of God in Jesus Christ
http://icgjcpdx.org/

SPLC Racist Black Hebrew Israelites Becoming More Militant
http://www.splcenter.org/get-informed/intelligence-report/browse-all-issues/2008/fall/ready-for-war

University Sumary

Oregon has a shameful history of school segregation. Twenty-six black students in one school in Portland were segregated for the 1871-1872 school year. That’s twenty-six students and one year too many, and the universities of Oregon are doing their part to change things.

Black (1.2% of Oregon population in 2010)
Oregon State University: 1.4%
University of Oregon: 2% (2012)
Portland State University: 1.6%
Southern Oregon University: 1.7%
Eastern Oregon University: 4% (Humanities & CORE)
Oregon Institute of Technology: 8.5% (2011)

Native American (1.4% of Oregon population in 2010)
Oregon State University: 1%
University of Oregon: 8.6% (2012)
Portland State University: 8.7%
Southern Oregon University: 1.6%
Eastern Oregon University: 1.2% (Humanities & CORE)
Oregon Institute of Technology: ?

Asian (3.7% of Oregon population in 2010)
Oregon State University: 7.8%
University of Oregon: 4% (2012)
Portland State University: 5.2%
Southern Oregon University: 3.4%
Eastern Oregon University: 4% (Humanities & CORE)
Oregon Institute of Technology: 18.1% (2011)

White (96.2% of Oregon population in 2010)
Oregon State University: 57%
University of Oregon: 67% (2012)
Portland State University: 67.5%
Southern Oregon University: 64.1%
Eastern Oregon University: 79% (Humanities & CORE)
Oregon Institute of Technology: 52.1% (2011)

In six out of six Oregon universities surveyed, minorities are either over-represented or within a single percentage point in proportion to their population in Oregon. Meanwhile, in six out of six Oregon universities surveyed, whites are under-represented by 17.2 to 39.2 percentage points in proportion to their population in Oregon. Interest groups for minorities exist at most Oregon universities. No university in Oregon has an interest group for white students.

Education policy makers in Oregon often speak of equality and of diversity. How can Oregon achieve either or both of these goals in higher education?

NOTES

OSU The Principles of Equality, Inclusion and Diversity
http://oregonstate.edu/oei/sites/default/files/appendix_b.pdf

OSU Equity, Inclusion and Diversity at Oregon State University
http://oregonstate.edu/main/campus-diversity

OSU Enrollment Summary Fall Term 2010
http://oregonstate.edu/admin/aa/ir/sites/default/files/enroll-fall-2010.pdf

OSU Native American Longhouse
http://oregonstate.edu/nal/about

OSU Lonnie B. Harris Black Cultural Center
http://oregonstate.edu/bcc/about

OSU Asian & Pacific Cultural Center
http://oregonstate.edu/apcc/

United States Census Oregon Quick Facts
http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/41000.html

PSU Coalition for Asian Pacific American Studies Description
http://salpsync.orgsync.com/show_profile/52056-club-for-asian-pacific-american-studies

PSU History of the Native Center
http://www.pdx.edu/dmss/nascc/history

PSU African American Student Services
http://www.pdx.edu/dmss/AA

PSU Student Profile Self-Support Enrollment Summer 2010
http://www.oirp.pdx.edu/source/fact10u/ce_all.pdf

Black Student Union
http://gladstone.uoregon.edu/~bsu/About%20Us.html

Native American Student Union
http://leadership.uoregon.edu/get_involved/student_groups/467

Asian Pacific American Student Union
http://blogs.uoregon.edu/apasu/

University of Oregon Admissions UO Facts
http://admissions.uoregon.edu/profile.html

Eastern Oregon University Black Student Union
https://orgsync.com/29481/chapter

Facebook: Speel-Ya
https://www.facebook.com/SpeelYa

Eastern Oregon University Student Affairs 2010-11 Annual Report
http://www.eou.edu/sse/files/2012/10/FYE-Annual-Report-2010-11_final.pdf

Oregon Institute of Technology Ethnicity by Location
http://www.oit.edu/faculty-staff/institutional-research/studentdemographics/ethnicity

Southern Oregon University 2012-13 Registered Clubs and Organizations
http://www.sou.edu/studentlife/clubs/directory.html

Southern Oregon University Fact Books 2010
http://sou.edu/ir/docs/SOUfactbook2010.pdf

Elaine Rector Looking Back in Order to Move Forward
http://www.portlandoregon.gov/bps/article/412697

Southern Oregon University

Oregon has a shameful history of school segregation. Twenty-six black students in one school in Portland were segregated for the 1871-1872 school year. That’s twenty-six students and one year too many, and Southern Oregon University is doing their part to change things.

The Black Student Union seeks “to increase campus awareness through educational, entertaining, and culturally relevant programs.” In 2010, blacks made up 1.8% of the Oregon population and 1.7% of the SOU student body.

The Native American Student Union “is a club/organization that is here to provide a safe comfortable place for Native American and Non Native American students and community members to come together to share our various cultures; learn about one another and work together toward having cultural edcuating [sic] events for all student and the SOU community.” In 2010, Native Americans made up 1.4% of the Oregon population and 1.6% of the SOU student body.

In 2010, Asians made up 3.7% of the Oregon population and 3.4% of the SOU student body.

In 2010, whites made up 96.2% of the Oregon population and 64.1% of the SOU student body.

Is Southern Oregon University representing the population of Oregon?

NOTES

Southern Oregon University 2012-13 Registered Clubs and Organizations
http://www.sou.edu/studentlife/clubs/directory.html

Southern Oregon University Fact Books 2010
http://sou.edu/ir/docs/SOUfactbook2010.pdf

United States Census Oregon Quick Facts
http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/41000.html

Oregon Institute of Technology

Oregon has a shameful history of school segregation. Twenty-six black students in one school in Portland were segregated for the 1871-1872 school year. That’s twenty-six students and one year too many, and the Oregon Institute of Technology is doing their part to change things.

In 2010, blacks made up 1.8% of the Oregon population. In 2011, blacks made up 8.5% of the OIT student body on the Boeing campus.

In 2010, Asians made up 3.7% of the Oregon population. In 2011, Asians made up 18.1% of the OIT student body on the Boeing campus.

In 2010, whites made up 96.2% of the Oregon population. In 2011, whites made up 52.1% of the OIT student body on the Boeing campus.

Is the Oregon Institute of Technology representing the population of Oregon?

NOTES

Oregon Institute of Technology Ethnicity by Location
http://www.oit.edu/faculty-staff/institutional-research/studentdemographics/ethnicity

United States Census Oregon Quick Facts
http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/41000.html